From fruit and vegetables, to proteins, fats and carbohydrates, food is our main source of energy. This energy keeps us alive by fuelling the central processes in our bodies. In her second lecture, Nancy Rothwell explores how much energy is in the different foods we eat, and what happens to our body weight when we eat it.
Different people need to eat different amounts of food, and each of us burns energy at different rates. The human body expends energy even when we’re sitting still, keeping warm. So how do we know how much energy we require? Our energy levels are monitored by the hypothalamus, the region of the brain that detects when our blood sugar levels are low and tell us we’re hungry. Nancy explains why we need to strike a fine balance between the amount of energy we take in and the amount we expend.
In the final part of her lecture she explains why the eating habits of animals are very different to those of humans: snakes won’t eat for months at a time but when they do, it will be a big meal; a polar bear cub will keep him warm in cold conditions by drinking from its mother milk containing 50% fat.
Find out how the pattern of eating is linked to the pattern of life. Surprisingly, very large animals eat proportionately less than very little animals. A tiny shrew for example needs to eat more than its own body weight in food every day just to stay alive.
Dame Nancy Rothwell
In her final Christmas Lecture, Nancy Rothwell reveals some of the incredible adaptations that animals have evolved to cope with life in the extremes. From anti-freeze blood to double-layered fur, each animal has found its own way to overcome the extremes.